Not quite so ancient: the author's posthumous writings, collected under the title of 'Silmarillion', suggest an early Cenozoic date: possibly in, or immediately after the last Ice Age.
Bilbo Baggins: The surname is typically English, and connotes precisely the 'kind, jolly, stupid' son-of-the-soil, such as we find throughout modern English literature; but a 'bilbo' is Early Modern English for a short sword.
Bag End: short probably for 'Baggins' End'; but David Day remarks, the name is a literal translation of 'cul de sac': "a phrase", says Day, "that belongs to no language", but indicates the end of a road.
the time of Middle-Earth: a meaningless phrase; 'middle-earth' is only a half-translation of the Norse 'Midgard' or 'Midgarth', which signified, the world of mortals. The character of 'Pippin', in 'The Return of the King', contrasts 'middle-earth and over-heaven and the sundering seas'.
Shire: after the name of several districts in the south of England, mostly of Saxon origin.
Hobbiton: literally, 'hobbit-town'.
Bree: a town of mixed population, half hobbit and half human, on the borders of the Shire: introduced in 'The Fellowship of the Ring'.
Gandalf means me: no explanation is given for this form of introduction; the name is elsewhere translated by the author as 'wand-elf', which is only a poetic circumlocution, after the Eddaic fashion, for 'Wizard'.
Old Took: Bilbo's maternal grandfather; evidently, to judge by his name, a person of some importance in the family, if no more than by virtue of his age. Of famous hobbits, only Bilbo lived to a greater.
Dwarves in Hobbiton: in later books, dwarves had traditionally been frequent passengers through the Shire, en route between their own cities.
Hair on his toes: the author tells us, hobbits 'wear no shoes, because their feet grow natural leathery soles and thick warm brown hair'.
Mirkwood: an anglicized form of 'Mirkvyd', the name of a perilous forest in Norse-German mythology.
Baggins, of Bag End!: in the book, we learn, the hobbits of the name of Baggins 'never had any adventures or did anything unexpected'.
Golf: hobbits are reputed, in this as in later books, for accuracy and skill in 'games of the aiming and throwing sort', though seldom at living targets.
Remember their names: in fact, the author never supplied their names. They were said to be incarnations of two immortals, called Alatar and Pallando; but the names they bore among mortals, have been lost.
Radagast: 'Road-guest'; the name of a Slavic deity.
Stolen: a recurrent theme in the author's work, is the image of the thief who steals from other thieves: Bilbo is one example, the trolls are another, Beren and Luthien are a third, the sons of Feanor yet another, Gollum (to obtain the ring) is another still, etc.
Goblin-wars: thematic in 'The Silmarillion', 'Beren & Luthien', 'Children of Hurin', 'Fall of Gondolin', & al.
Durin: legendary founder of dwarf civilization, and the name of several of his successors. Any or all of these Durins was the ancestor of Thorin, Dain, Fili & Kili, Balin & Dwalin, Oin & Gloin, & Dori, Nori, & Ori. The last of the dynasty was Durin VII, a descendant of Dain.
Thunder-battle: a collision of storm-fronts.
Goblins: originally, a name for any minor evil immortal, but applied in modern times to a particular genus: anthropoid, but deformed, and said to live underground, and live by raiding and war. The goblins in the 1977 film resemble the 'Oni' of Japanese art, while those in the 2000s films are essentially human, though grotesque. The author's own descriptions, though few and far between in the four famous books, suggest chimpanzees, or some form of australopithecus.
Against the rules: according to the book, 'the last question had not been a genuine riddle according to the ancient laws'; but there are folk-tales enough of a riddler asking, 'Whereof am I thinking?', or 'Who was this I saw?', et sim.
Orcs: alternative name for goblins; from the Roman 'Orcus', a god of the dead.
Beorn: 'Bear-man', or similar.
Azog: originally, his son Bolg; but in the films, the role of the son is given to the father.
Only one: Beorn, in the book, 'became a great chief', and the founder of another lineage.
Istari: the alternative name for the 'wizards' in the story.
Morgul blade: from the French 'mort', meaning 'Death', and the Arabic 'ghoul', meaning 'phantom' or 'monster'.
Sauron: one of the 'Evil Spirits' or 'Fallen Angels' of Tolkien's mythos; second only to Melkor/Morgoth, the god of evil in the 'Silmarillion'.
Witch-king of Angmar: chief among the phantom 'Ring-wraiths', who serve Sauron. Not seen until later books.
Mordor: 'Darkness', in the invented language of the elves.
Bruinen: 'Brimming': Elrond's river.
Found something: in 1977, as in the book, Gandalf guesses the truth much earlier; but these are perhaps the most evocative lines in the 2000s films, and therefore retained here.
Sun has shown: in the book, 'Sun has shone'; changed in the film, to rhyme with 'Sown'.
Mountains in the Moon: in Tolkien's 'Roverandom', the moon is an inhabited world.
Tauriel: not mentioned in the book, but identifiable with any of the elven sentries.
My wife: dwarves, in the author's notes, are not sexually dimorphic.
Hill of sorcery: nearly a literal translation.
We are legion: the filmmakers' reference to the legend in which the prophet Isa, in examining a case of multiple-personality disorder, received much the same answer from one of the alternate personalities. Isa, promptly, sacrificed a herd of hogs, to exorcise the disorder.
Erebor: the dwarven city in the Mountain.
His kin that dare seek revenge: the joke is on Smaug, of course; these are on his door-step, and the archer 'Bard' in Lake-town is a descendant of Girion lord of Dale.
Not in the world today: a recurrent idea in the author's work, and indeed in hero-tales generally.
Arkenstone: the 'crown jewel' of the treasure; another recurrent idea, as in 'Beren and Luthien'.
Megaloceras: 'Great Horn'; a species of elk of immense size and gigantic antlers; included here, perhaps, to re-enforce the idea of an Ice Age setting.
on which a serpent has long brooded: cf. the 'Volsung Saga'.
Roac: in the book, the chief of the ravens of the Mountain; traditionally the messengers of the dwarves.
Halfling: the alternate name for hobbits: a reference to their diminutive size.
Thorin's cousin: Dain is the son of Nain, the son of Gror, the brother of Thror, the father of Thrain, the father of Thorin.
More reasonable of the two: this line, not found in any book, is introduced in the film to raise anxiety in the viewer. In the original, Dain proved it wrong: rather than fight the other victors of the Battle of Five Armies, over the spoils of victory (as is usual in such alliances), he gave 1/14 of the treasure to the Lake-people, in exchange for the Arkenstone (entombed with Thorin), and the gems of Lasgalen, among other prizes, to the elven-king. Dain himself assumed the throne of the Kingdom under the Mountain, and remained a close ally of the rebuilt Dale and Lake-town, until his death in the War of the Ring.
Were-worms: possibly a reference to the 'Olgo-khorkoi' of Mongolia: a mythical intestinal parasite in quadrupeds. In the film, much exaggerated in size, power, and terror.
Ogres: similar to trolls, but larger and stronger. The filmmakers, naiively, portray them as pale, to suggest a nocturnal or subterranean life. But ogres, unlike trolls, are not vulnerable to sunlight.
Buggers: not inappropriate, insofar as it means almost the same as 'Goblin'.
Fatty: Mrs. Bolger's son. He would have been a child at the time of the story.
Lobelia Sackville-Baggins: one of Bilbo's least-liked relatives, who seems to have covetted Bag End since its origin at the hands of Bilbo's father, Mr. Bungo Baggins.
Spoons: in the books, he does not recover them all, but later gives Lobelia those he does recover, as a gift.
Prove it: the hobbits, of course, had never heard of Martin Guerre; but the Sackville-Bagginses, and others, 'never admitted the returned Baggins was genuine', until years later. When the rift in the family was at last mended, Lobelia lived to a ripe old age, among her other relations of the name of Bracegirdle of Harbottle; and we readers may be pleased to imagine her there, ordering everyone about until the end of her days, in the style of grandmothers and great-aunts everywhere.
Contract for employment: this has actually been parsed by solicitors and legal analysts. Even in a lay reading, the contract is revised a few times: Bilbo cites the Mirkwood misadventures as additional to it; Thorin declares it void at the gate, and re-instates it after the battle; Bilbo and Dain negotiate a replacement in the aftermath. Thus the 'original bargain' is never fulfilled; which is thematic, again, in the author's mythmaking.
Sitting on a treasure: the rumour spread, in later books, by Bilbo's neighbours; but his 'two small chests' might well have been worth more than their weight, in Shire currency.