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Rongjing Emperor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reign: 16 September 1766 - 12 June 1801

Predecessor: Qianlong Emperor

Successor: Jiayi Emperor

Born: 23 March 1741

Died: 12 June 1801 (aged 60)

Burial: Western Qing Tombs

House: Aisin-Gioro

Father: Qianlong Emperor

Mother: Empress Xiaocichun

The Rongjing Emperor (23 March 1741 – 12 June 1801) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. Born Aisin Gioro Yongqi, the fifth son of the Qianlong Emperor, he reigned officially from 16 September 1766 to 12 June 1801.

While like his father before him, the Rongjing Emperor did use military force to preserve the dynasty's position, the number and duration of wars under his reign significantly decreased. Having inherited a prosperous empire from his father, the Rongjing Emperor managed to increase the nation's wealth further to its peak around 1785, when, even with further tax cuts, the treasury surplus still reached 105.2 million silver taels. His reign is considered to be one of prosperous peace and positive reforms.

Early years

Yongqi was born in the Forbidden City, Beijing, as the fifth son of the Qianlong Emperor and Consort Yu of the Mongolian Keliyete clan (珂里叶特氏), also known as the Haijia clan (海佳氏) in Manchurian.

Yongqi was studious and diligent from a young age. He was fluent in the Manchu and Mongol languages and was well-versed in astronomy, geography and calendrical calculation. He was also proficient in poetry, painting, and calligraphy and skilled in horse-riding and mounted archery. His talents earned him the favour of his father, the Qianlong Emperor; from a young age, he was considered to be his father's favourite son.

Despite this, his mother did not receive the same favour from his father. At the time of Yongqi's birth, his mother was a low-ranked concubine, holding the title Noble Lady Hai. She was promoted to Imperial Concubine Yu a month after his birth. In 1745, she was further promoted to Consort Yu. However, by 1748, Consort Yu had fallen into disgrace. Some time that year, her father, E'erjitu, became embroiled in a court scandal, which led to his being sentenced to death and implicating many members of his family. Amid the scandal, Consort Yu was deposed of her title and exiled to a nunnery.

After his mother left the palace, Yongqi was raised by Consort Ling, a favourite of the Qianlong Emperor. Despite the circumstances around the loss of his mother, Yongqi and Consort Ling shared a close and cordial relationship.

In 1761, a fire broke out in the Old Summer Palace, and Yongqi carried his father on his back and brought him to safety.

Accession to the throne

Following a successful military campaign against Burma in 1763, during which time Yongqi served as a general alongside his brother-in-law, Fu Erkang, under Fu Heng, who was commander-in-chief, the Qianlong Emperor conferred on Yongqi the title "Prince Rong of the First Rank".

Yongqi was the first of the Qianlong Emperor's sons to officially receive a princely title due to personal achievements. Previously, his older brothers, Yonghuang, Yonglian and Yongcong were all bestowed princely titles as posthumous honours, and were either born to Empress Xiaoxianchun or a high-ranking consort. At the time of Yongqi receiving his title, his mother was still in exile outside the palace and considered to have been deposed of her title. The fact that Yongqi was instated as Prince of the First Rank while his mother was still in disgrace showed that the Qianlong Emperor truly favoured Yongqi and was seriously considering him as the prime candidate for succession. He was also appointed chief regent during his father's bouts of illness in his later years.

Following the example of his father, the Qianlong Emperor wrote the name of his chosen successor on an imperial edict, placed in a sealed box secured behind the tablet over the throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity. When the Qianlong Emperor died of illness in 1766, the will was taken out and read before the entire Qing court, proclaiming Yongqi as the new emperor. Yongqi adopted the era name "Rongjing" (Chinese: 榮靖, lit. "Glorious Order") from his princely title 'rong' (榮, glory) and 'jing' (靖, peaceful, orderly).

When he succeeded to the throne, the common Chinese character 永 in the new emperor's name was changed to the less common 顒, thus changing his name from "Yongqi" (永琪) to "Yongqi" (顒琪). This novelty was an instruction from the Qianlong Emperor prior to his death, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.

Prior to his death, the Qianlong Emperor had restored Yongqi’s mother to her former position of Consort Yu. After succeeding to the throne, Yongqi honoured her as Empress Dowager, with the title Empress Dowager Chunde (純德皇太后). After her death in 1792, she was posthumously granted the title Empress Xiaocichun (孝慈纯皇后).

Yongqi's foster mother had, by the time of the Qianlong Emperor's death, risen to the rank of Imperial Noble Consort. After the succession of the Rongjing Emperor, she became known as the Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ling in deference to the new emperor's birth mother. However, when she died in 1775, the Rongjing Emperor honoured her with the posthumous title of Empress Xiaoyichun (孝仪纯皇后).


Early in his reign, the Rongjing Emperor prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide.

Social welfare

The reign of the Rongjing Emperor saw the development and expansion of the most wide-spread centralised welfare system in the Qing dynasty, run and maintained by the joint efforts of the Ministries of Work and Revenue. Starting from the early 1770s, and supported with the wealth confiscated from Heshen, the Rongjing Emperor ordered the construction of establishments which would later be used to house and implement expanding social welfare programs, which included formal state-run orphanages, retirement homes, public clinics and paupers' graveyard. These initiatives started in Beijing and surrounding areas, but by the mid-1780s, had been spread to all over the empire.

Cultural achievements

Like his predecessors, the Rongjing Emperor took his cultural role seriously and worked to preserve the Manchu heritage, which was seen as the basis of the moral character of the Manchus and thus of the dynasty's power. He ordered the compilation of Manchu language genealogies, histories, and ritual handbooks and later commissioned the compliation of the Siku Quanshu.

In his childhood, the Rongjing Emperor was tutored in Manchu, Chinese and Mongolian, and later learnt also Tibetan and Chagatai (Turkic or Modern Uyghur). He continued the efforts of his father, the Qianlong Emperor, in preserving and promoting the Manchu language among his subjects, proclaiming that "the keystone for Manchus is language."

In the 1790s, the Rongjing Emperor also commissioned new Manchu dictionaries, and directed the preparation of the Pentaglot Dictionary which gave equivalents for Manchu terms in Mongolian, Tibetan and Chagatai, and had the Buddhist canon translated into Manchu, which was considered the "national language". He directed the elimination of loanwords taken from Chinese and replaced them with calque translations which were put into new Manchu dictionaries. Manchu translations of Chinese works during his reign were direct translations contrasted with Manchu books translated during the Kangxi Emperor's reign which were transliterations in Manchu script of the Chinese characters.

Macartney Embassy

Main article: Macartney Embassy

See also: All under heaven, Hua-Yi distinction, and Kowtow

During the mid-18th century, European imperialist powers began to pressure the Rongjing Emperor to increase foreign trade. Since the Yuan dynasty, there had been a lack of precedent interaction with overseas foreign kingdoms apart from neighbouring tributary states. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty rose and tried to unite the country, in part by strictly regulating interaction with foreign powers through trade. This isolationist economic policy continued into the reigns of early Qing emperors.

The Macartney Mission, the first British diplomatic mission to China, took place in 1793. The goals of the mission included the opening of new ports for British trade in China, the establishment of a permanent embassy in Beijing, the cession of a small island for British use along China's coast, and the relaxation of trade restrictions on British merchants in Guangzhou (also known as the Canton System).

The Rongjing Emperor's ministers and advisors were divided into two camps, one who saw the incoming foreigners as potential harm to China, and one who saw potential increased foreign trade as opportunities to strengthen both China's economy and assert its position as a world power. Imperial court correspondences ahead of the embassy's arrival showed that the Rongjing Emperor was of the latter opinion.

He originally instructed Tong Liying, Viceroy of Liangguang and younger brother of Empress Xiaoshuren, to receive the embassy at the port of Guangzhou. Representatives of the East India Company, who met with Tong ahead of Macartney's arrival, requested permission for the embassy to land at Tianjin instead of Guangzhou. There were opinions in the imperial court that the request should be refused, as it was considered improper for a tributary mission to select its own port of arrival. However, the British officials pointed out that the ships carried many large, precious items that might be damaged if taken overland. Moreover, as Tong noted in his report to the emperor, the embassy had journeyed a great distance, and would be greatly delayed if sent back to Guangzhou from Tianjin. The Rongjing Emperor agreed to the request, and instructed his officials to lead the embassy to him with the utmost civility.

The embassy arrived at Tianjin, where they were met by Fu Ertai, the Viceroy of Zhili, who, together with his brother, Fu Erkang, Minister of Defence, escorted the visitors to Chengde Mountain Resort in Rehe where the meeting with the emperor took place.

There was initial tension between the two sides regarding protocols, particularly the ritual of the kowtow, which was required not only when meeting the emperor, but also when receiving imperial edicts from his messengers, but was regarded by the British as slavish and humiliating. The Rongjing Emperor was at first willing to forgo the entire ritual, but reconsidered on the overwhelming advice of his ministers who were of the opinion that it would "lessen the emperor and empire's august dignity to permit such liberties to the barbarians, in turn, inviting arrogance". After many days of discussion, it was finally agreed that Macartney would genuflect before the emperor as he would before his own sovereign, touching one knee to the ground, although without the usual hand kissing, as it was not customary for anyone to kiss the emperor's hand.

Despite this initial tension, the meeting with the Rongjing Emperor took place smoothly, and celebrated with a banquet where the British were seated on the emperor's left, in the most prestigious position.

A description of the Rongjing Emperor is provided in the account of one of the visiting Englishmen, Aeneas Anderson:

The Emperor is about five feet seven inches in height, and of a slender but elegant form; his complexion is comparatively fair, though his eyes are dark and piercing in their intelligent expression; his nose is rather broader than that of the average Englishman, and the whole of his countenance presents a perfect regularity of feature. His deportment accompanies by an affability, which, without lessening the dignity of the prince, evinces the amiable character of the man. His dress consisted of a loose robe of yellow silk, a cap of black velvet with a red ball on the top, and adorned with a peacock's feather, which is the peculiar distinction of mandarins of the first class. He wore silk boots embroidered with gold, and a sash of blue girded his waist.

Subsequent trade negotiations between the two countries was presided over, on the British side, by Macartney, and on the Chinese side, by the Rongjing Emperor's son, Prince Ji, the future Jiayi Emperor. Despite evidence that both sides wished for a favourable outcome, the Macartney Embassy ultimately failed to obtain its primary objectives. The proposed cultural exchange between the British Empire and the Qing Empire collapsed not due to Macartney's refusal to kowtow in the presence of the Rongjing Emperor, as is sometimes believed. It was also not a result of the Chinese reliance on tradition in dictating foreign policy. Rather, the breakdown in relations was a result of competing world views which were mutually uncomprehending and to some extent incompatible.

One main sticking point was the relative status of the two sovereigns, George III and Rongjing. Despite the Rongjing Emperor having shown a willingness to not adhere strictly to traditions in favour of diplomacy, the Chinese were still of the entrenched beliefs that China was the "central kingdom". At the same time, Macartney believed that Britain was now the most powerful nation on Earth. What resulted was competing worldviews that could not be negotiated or resolved. Britain's aggressive push for rapid liberalisation of trade relations as a result of British expansionism also worsened ties.

The Rongjing Emperor gave Macartney a letter to be delivered to King George III, stating that, for numerous reasons outlined in the letter, Macartney's request for a trade agreement would not be possible and would not benefit China. According to the letter:

Your Ambassador petitioned our Ministers to memorialise us regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years.

Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade... Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your example and beseech us to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could we possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of our Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality...While we accept that certain outdated restrictions may be reasonably withdrawn, the extent to which you are requesting would create unconscionable friction between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects...

Though in the letter to George III, the Rongjing emperor indicated that he would not eliminate the single port commerce system, or Canton System, at the request of the Macartney Embassy, it did not follow that he would dismiss the idea of relaxing trade restrictions altogether. In 1794, the Rongjing Emperor gave an imperial edict for the Ministry of Revenue to investigate the possibility of eliminating Canton's monopoly advantage to encourage foreign trade, with the purpose of boosting the Qing economy which, despite its growth in the first half of his reign, had by then approached stagnation. Eventually, under the reign of the Jiayi Emperor, the ports of Shanghai, Fuzhou and Xiamen were opened for foreign trade in 1808.

The rising economic power of China as a result of the new trading system coupled with a seemingly insatiable western demand for tea from China towards the end of the 18th century caused a significant deficit in the British balance of trade. The Chinese had little interest in Western goods and would only accept silver in payment. This spurred the East India Company to sell opium grown on its plantations in India to independent traders, who shipped it on to China to sell in exchange for silver. China prohibited the importation of this opium, but the traders persisted. Chinese attempts to regain control led to the First Opium War.

The Macartney Embassy is historically significant for many reasons, most of them visible only in retrospect. While to a modern sensibility it marked a missed opportunity by both sides to explore and understand each other's cultures, customs, diplomatic styles, and ambitions, it also prefigured increasing British pressure on China to accommodate its expanding trade and imperial network. Despite later relaxation in China's trade policies, without a formal treaty between the two countries and representative power, the British were still confined at the ports and unable to access China's interior. Thus, the general mutual lack of knowledge and understanding persisted on both sides, and would continue to plague the Qing dynasty as it encountered increasing foreign pressures and internal unrest during the late 19th century.

Death and succession

The Rongjing Emperor died on 12 June 1801 at the Old Summer Palace. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Mianyi, as the Jiayi Emperor.

The Rongjing Emperor was interred in the Kailing (凱陵, literally, Tomb of Triumph) mausoleum, which is part of the Western Qing Tombs, 120 kilometers/75 miles southwest of Beijing. It was Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan, not his primary consort, Empress Xiaoshuren as would have been the custom, who was later interred in the same tomb as the Rongjing Emperor. Empress Xiaoshuren, who survived the Rongjing Emperor and was honoured by the Jiayi Emperor was Empress Dowager Duanyi, was eventually interred in a separate tomb at the Western Qing Tombs.

The Rongjing Emperor's choice of successor and Empress Dowager Duanyi's decision to have Imperial Consort Yihuan rather than herself buried with the emperor were cause for much speculation by contemporaries and historians.

The Jiayi Emperor's birth mother, Empress Xiaohuiren, held the relatively low rank as Consort Wen during her lifetime. By contrast, Imperial Noble Consort Yi was highly favoured by the Rongjing Emperor, and gave birth to four sons (three of whom lived to adulthood) and two daughters. Originally, it was expected that the Rongjing Emperor would choose one of Imperial Noble Consort Yi's sons to become his successor.

When Consort Wen died in 1779, she was first posthumously promoted to Noble Consort Wenya, which was within the norm for mother of princes. In 1789, the Rongjing Emperor further posthumously promoted her to Imperial Noble Consort Wenya, and changed her Han Chinese family name, Chen, to the Manchurian Chenjia. At the same time, her son was promoted to Prince Ji of the First Rank. This was the first sign that the Rongjing Emperor might be considering Mianyi as a candidate for succession, especially when, despite his recorded favour of Imperial Noble Consort Yi, he did not bestow on her the same honour of a Manchurian name.

There was further evidence showing that Mianyi had for some years been the Rongjing Emperor's planned successor when no hint of scandal was recorded when the Jiayi Emperor was proclaimed as successor, as previously seen with the disputed succession of the Yongzheng Emperor. The Jiayi Emperor also expressed his gratitude to Imperial Noble Consort Yi for supporting his succession as the Rongjing Emperor's eldest surviving son, and bestowed on her the title Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan. He also complied with her request to live with her eldest son, Prince Zheng, at his residence.

Historical records show that the decisions for burial arrangements for Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan and Empress Dowager Duanyi were both made by the Empress Dowager herself. Both were considered unusual for the time, though some contemporary unofficial accounts suggest that to be buried with Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan had been the Rongjing Emperor's own wish prior to his death.




Title/Posthumous title: Empress Xiaoshuren (孝淑仁皇后)
Name: Lady Tunggiya (佟佳氏)
Born: 1744
Died: 1812
Father: Tong Weiwu
Notes: Married Yongqi in 1764 and became his primary consort.
Became Empress in 1766.
Became Empress Dowager Duanyi (端懿皇太后) in 1801.

Title/Posthumous title: Empress Xiaohuiren (孝慧仁皇后)
Name: Lady Chengiya (陈佳氏)
Born: 1745
Died: 1779
Father: Chen Bangzhi
Notes: Born a Han Chinese with the family name Chen.
Her family name was later changed to the Manchurian Chengiya.
Married Yongqi in 1762 and became his secondary consort.
Became Consort Wen (文妃) in 1766 upon the Rongjing Emperor's succession.
Posthumously promoted to Noble Consort Wenya (文雅贵妃) in 1779.
Posthumously promoted to Imperial Noble Consort Wenya (文雅皇贵妃) in 1789.
Upon her son's succession, posthumously promoted to Empress Xiaohuiren (孝慧仁皇后).

Imperial Noble Consort

Title/Posthumous title: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan (欢皇贵妃)
Name: Lady Fang (方氏)
Born: 1742
Died: 1805
Father: Fang Zhihang
Notes: Married Yongqi in 1761 and became his secondary consort.
Became Consort Yi (怡妃) in 1766 upon the Rongjing Emperor's succession.
Promoted to Noble Consort Yi (怡贵妃) in 1771.
Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort Yi (怡皇贵妃) in 1778.
Became Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan (怡欢皇贵太妃) in 1801.

Noble Consorts

Title/Posthumous title: Noble Consort Wenping (溫平贵妃)
Name: Lady Shengiya (沈佳氏)
Born: 1751
Died: 1794
Notes: Born a Han Chinese with the family name Shen.
Her family name was later changed to the Manchurian Shengiya.
Entered the palace in 1768 as Shen Changzai (沈常在)
Promoted to Noble Lady Shen (沈贵人) in 1771.
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Wen (溫嬪) in 1772.
Promoted to Consort Wen (溫妃) in 1776.
Promoted to Noble Consort Wen (溫贵妃) in 1780.
Posthumously promoted to Noble Consort Wenping (溫平贵妃) upon her death in 1784.

Title/Posthumous title: Noble Consort Heyi (和意贵妃)
Name: Lady Yehenara (叶赫那拉氏)
Born: 1750
Died: 1796
Notes: Entered the palace in 1768 as He Changzai (和常在)
Promoted to Noble Lady He (和贵人) in 1769.
Promoted to Imperial Concubine He (和嬪) in 1771.
Promoted to Consort He (和妃) in 1782.
Posthumously promoted to Noble Consort Heyi (和意贵妃) in 1796.

Title/Posthumous title: Noble Consort Mujie (洁贵妃)
Name: Lady Borjigit (博尔济吉特氏)
Born: 1758
Died: 1830
Notes: Entered the palace in 1775 as Noble Lady Mu (穆贵人)
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Mu (穆嬪) in 1776.
Promoted to Consort Mu (穆妃) in 1783.
Promoted to Noble Consort Mu (穆贵妃) in 1790.
Became Dowager Noble Consort Mujie (穆洁贵太妃) in 1801.


Title/Posthumous title: Consort An (安妃)
Name: Lady Heseri (赫舍里氏)
Born: 1750
Died: 1781
Note: Entered the palace in 1768 as Noble Lady An (安贵人).
Promoted to Imperial Concubine An (安嬪) in 1772.
Posthumously promoted to Consort An (安妃) in 1781.

Title/Posthumous title: Consort Yao (瑶妃)
Name: Lady Jiang (江氏)
Born: 1749
Died: 1815
Note: Entered the palace in 1768 as Jiang Daying (江答應).
Promoted to Jiang Changzai (江常在) in 1775.
Promoted to Jiang Guiren (江贵人) in 1776.
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Jiang (江嬪) in 1782.
Promoted to Consort Yao (瑶妃) in 1794.
Became Dowager Consort Yao (瑶太妃) in 1801.

Imperial Concubines

Title/Posthumous title: Imperial Concubine Chen (沉嬪)
Name: Lady Fucha (富察氏)
Born: 1754
Died: 1788
Father: Fu Zheng of the Fucha clan.
Note: Entered the palace in 1770 as Noble Lady Xiang (祥贵人)
Demoted to Fucha Daying (富察答應) in 1771.
Promoted to Fucha Changzai (富察常在) in 1774.
Promoted to Noble Lady Chen (沉贵人) in 1784.
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Chen (沉嬪) in 1787.

Noble Ladies

Title/Posthumous title: Noble Lady Xin (贵人)
Name: Lady Niohuru (钮祜禄氏)
Born: 1751
Died: 1785
Note: Entered the palace in 1768 as Noble Lady Xin (欣贵人)
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Xin (欣嬪) in 1769.
Demoted to Xin Daying (欣答應) in 1770.
Promoted to Xin Changzai (欣常在) in 1775.
Posthumously promoted to Noble Lady Xin (欣贵人) in 1785.


1. Title/Posthumous title: Prince Chengrui of the First Rank 承瑞亲王
Name: Mianzhang (绵仗)
Birth: 12 November 1763
Death: 30 September 1765
Mother: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan
Notes: Died young. Posthumously honoured as Prince Chengrui of the First Rank (承瑞亲王) in 1766.

2. Title/Posthumous title: Jiayi Emperor (嘉宜帝)
Name: Mianyi (绵亿)
Birth: 18 May 1764
Death: 13 July 1822
Mother: Empress Xiaohuiren
Note: Made beile in 1782.
Promoted to Prince Ji of the Second Rank (纪郡王) in 1785.
Promoted to Prince Ji of the First Rank (纪亲王) in 1789.
Succeeded as emperor in 1801. Changed his name to Minyi (旻亿) after he became emperor.

3. Title/Posthumous title: Prince Zhengrui of the First Rank 正睿亲王
Name: Mianren (绵任)
Birth: 19 July 1766
Death: 23 February 1830
Mother: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan
Note: Made beile in 1783.
Promoted to Prince Zheng of the Second Rank (正郡王) in 1785.
Promoted to Prince Zheng of the First Rank (正亲王) in 1793.

4. Title/Posthumous title: Prince Zunyu of the First Rank 遵裕亲王
Name: Mianxuan (绵儇)
Birth: 30 March 1768
Death: 8 October 1837
Mother: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan
Note: Made Prince Zun of the Second Rank (遵郡王) in 1790.
Promoted to Prince Zun of the First Rank (遵亲王) in 1804.

5. Title/Posthumous title: none
Name: unnamed
Birth: 7 November 1771
Death: 29 November 1771
Mother: Consort An
Note: Died in infancy

6. Title/Posthumous title: Prince Gongxin of the First Rank 恭信亲王
Name: Mianreng (绵仍)
Birth: 27 August 1772
Death: 1 March 1827
Mother: Noble Consort Wenping
Note: Made Prince Gong of the Second Rank in 1797.
Made Prince Gong of the First Rank in 1804.

7. Title/Posthumous title: Prince Jingqin of the First Rank 敬勤亲王
Name: Mianyou (绵优)
Birth: 18 September 1778
Death: 22 February 1821
Mother: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan
Note: Made beile in 1797.
Promoted to Prince Jing of the Second Rank in 1804.
Promoted to Prince Jing of the First Rank in 1817.

8. Title/Posthumous title: none
Name: unnamed
Birth: 10 October 1780
Death: 3 January 1781
Mother: Imperial Concubine Sun
Note: Died in infancy

9. Title/Posthumous title: Prince Kuanjue of the First Rank 宽觉亲王
Name: Mianyan (绵俨)
Birth: 17 December 1783
Death: 11 May 1824
Mother: Noble Consort Mujie
Note: Made Prince Kuan of the Second Rank in 1814.
Promoted to Prince Kuan of the First Rank in 1822.


1. Title/Posthumous title: Gulun Princess Changyu 固倫昌宇公主
Name: Zhuangnan (庄南)
Birth: 28 December 1761
Death: 12 July 1819
Mother: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan
Notes: Married Fu Xianghe (福相贺) of the Fugiya clan (福佳氏).

2. Title/Posthumous title: Heshuo Princess Changji 和碩昌寂公主
Name: Zhuangjing (庄靜)
Birth: 14 June 1769
Death: 9 August 1807
Mother: Noble Consort Heyi

3. Title/Posthumous title: Gulun Princess Changwan 固倫昌宛公主
Name: Zhuangmin (庄敏)
Birth: 22 May 1771
Death: 17 December 1836
Mother: Imperial Noble Consort Yihuan

4. Title/Posthumous title: none
Name: unnamed
Birth: 2 November 1775
Death: 15 January 1776
Mother: Noble Consort Mujie
Note: Died in infancy

5. Title/Posthumous title: Heshuo Princess Changrong 和碩昌容公主
Name: Zhuangting (庄婷)
Birth: 9 September 1777
Death: 12 April 1810
Mother: Consort Yao